The aim of the article has been presentation of the fate of work in two different phases of his development: fordism and postfordism. The presentation is focused on relation between work and his object, scale of demanded creativity, type of man’s potentialities needed in a given type of work, relation between work and non-work, localization of work, stability of employment, dignity of work, scale of commodification of work, moral consequences of diff erent types of work, the way in which work is paid. An important part of the article is devoted to changing ways of control over work and types of oppression connected with the work in fordism and postfordism.
From the perspective of biology, humans achieved evolutionary success: conquered all terrestrial ecosystems of the planet and over dominated populations of other mammals. These successes, however, were simultaneously announcing the ecological catastrophe in the longer perspective. The past century brought about the degradation of soils, disappearance of lakes, freshwater deficiencies, the growing rate of biodiversity loss, finally the loss of the land surface, due to climate change and raised level of the oceans. Homo sapiens and its environment are threatened by the anthropogenic large scale degradation of biosphere: deforestation, progressing desertification, large demographic, economic and social inequities between different regions of so-called Third world, aspirations to achieve high standard of living in the most populated parts of the planet, and the attitudes of highly developed societies that ignore the necessity to reduce the anthropopressure in each of its dimensions.
Automation and related robotization is the peak achievement in the development of the technique of building machines for replace people in the performing of manufacturing work, and artificial intelligence is the peak achievement in the development of computer science as a tool to support people in the implementation of mental work. Progress and development in both areas should please us as another civilization success. Meanwhile, instead of pride and joy, many people feel fear, because there are many suspected threats surrounding these achievements of automation and artificial intelligence. The article aims to assess which of these fears are justified and which are not. According to the author, the supposition that when artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence (which will inevitably occur) will want to gain power over the world and destroy humanity – they are unjustified. However, the real threat is unemployment, which will occur along with the more frequent replacement of people by machines – both in physical and mental work.
When the authorities from the coal and steel age are trying to rule society of the digital era, this is not likely to promise calm times. Wars and crises, still inevitable in the physical world, will be additionally overlapped by conflicts over the Network, through the Network, in the Network and with the Network itself. Over the next decades, the present order will gradually decompose, and in the second half of this century one can expect revolutionary changes shaping the new order.
Mankind is increasingly responsible for the degradation of the environment. This process increases the risk of a collapse of the civilization’s development. The human impact on the environment is already so great that the present epoch is called anthropocene. This means that man not only destroys, but through appropriate action can reverse the degradation process. The author distinguishes two development paths to avoid future threats. The first one is endogenous. It is based on the conviction that the values of humankind must change. In this regard, it is necessary to limit the commonly used principle of maximizing profi t and exchange it for something more attractive. This new value is not yet widely defined. The second path is based on the occurrence of an exogenous factor that would shake the world’s societies and in a certain way “force” change. The study was based on critical analysis of available literature.
This article is an update of 2016 forecast of military and political security in 2025- and 2050-time horizons. The first part is focused on the identifi cation threats for military and political security, through subject literature review as well as forecasts & analyses of recognized individual researchers and institutions, including World Economic Forum, the National Intelligence Council, and US military forces. The following section is devoted to the presentation of research method used in this paper, referring to existing approaches in the research domain. Subsequently, results of the research are presented, including updated extracts of four mini scenarios adopted: (1) use of ABC weapons by terrorist organizations, (2) struggle for resources, (3) economic inequalities, (4) series of conflicts on the borders. Against this background the fi nal scenario was revised. In conclusion some recommendations and final remarks were made.
The article analyzes primary energy sources, their sufficiency and diversification on a local and global scale. Energy conditions the development possibilities of civilization. Reserves and resources of geofuels: crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium and methane hydrates were characterized. The forecast of primary energy demand on a global and local scale as well as the growing threat of energy crisis due to the use of fossil fuels and reduction of energy supplies were discussed. Threats and remedies related to the world’s energy security were described in the perspective of many generations. Preferences and stimulators in Polish energy policy for the crisis survival strategy were analyzed, including the problem of decarbonisation of the Polish power industry against the background of the European climate policy, the availability of gas sources as an effective fuel for the energy sector and the Polish nuclear energy program EJ. Selected problems of renewable energy sources RES, including the problem of the scale of interchangeability of geofuels by EJ and RES are indicated. The main areas of global and local anti-crisis activities were presented, as well as an outline of the Polish anti-crisis strategy, including the establishment of the National Energy Security Center.
The study presents the concept of chaos as a research category and discusses its peculiarities. Chaos has been illustrated by economic contrasts in international comparisons that lead to world governance disturbances. It discusses terror as a source of chaos and presents the precariat as a further threat to social order on a global scale. Some of the text refers to chaos in the natural environment. The author discussed cyberspace as a source of chaos and pointed to the importance of science as a proposal to escape from chaos.
The shape of the world created by us depends on the state of human consciousness, including the hierarchy of values. It develops under the influence of educational processes and because of this great responsibility lies with educators who are underrated in society. They could significantly contribute to reducing both military and paramilitary threats, creating the need for higher values.
One of the fundamental social issues essential to the understanding of the economic crisis, especially the modern, is the concept of human person and responsibility. Among social stereotypes, superstitions and ideas, that get from the sphere of colloquial thinking to economics, or at least to some of its theories, is a conviction about the autonomy of the economy in relation to society and culture, as well as axiological and causal dominance over them. There are little “superstitions” so absurd, arguing with common sense and the reality that would so firmly underlie many theories as “social obviousness”. They create the ground for them. Unfortunately muddy. In this context, I present here a sketch of an attempt to include the concept of responsibility and social inequalities to a theoretical model useful to explain important aspects of the economic crisis.
The article is devoted to the issue of peace building through broadly understood educational processes. It stresses the need to focus not only on the threats and dangers facing modern man, but also on the chances and opportunities available to him to create a peaceful, better future. If we consider education to be one of the most important sources of these opportunities, then the following tasks become priorities: developing critical thinking skills, promoting future-oriented ethics, shaping civic attitudes, teaching openness to others, developing creative attitudes and creativity. Each of these educational tasks has been briefly discussed and argued. In conclusion, the author draws attention to the need to emphasize the personal responsibility of each person for peace-building, citing the Manifesto 2000 developed by Nobel Peace Prize winners.
Climate change is changing the Earth and changing people. They have the importance of an existential catastrophe. We are in their initial phase. It is uncertain whether they can be stopped or reduced, but it is certain that the process of change has already begun. It has also not been established whether their source is man or the causes are in the very nature of the planet and the cosmos. In any case, human activity matters, and therefore his, or our, responsibility. Next to this, i.e. counteracting, the issue of defense against increasing threats is no less important. This defense has to be started now and it covers a number of activities and areas of social life. The article defines them.
This article covers three topics: 1. Human responsibility and its limits in relation to freedom; 2. Rapid climate change and probability of cosmic catastrophe being threats to Earth’s survival; 3. Survival of our planet as a major challenge in terms of neutralizing those threats and creating global educational program.
Analysis of the impact of globalization on the security environment shows that the ability of a sovereign nation-state to provide security to citizens increasingly depends on the deepening of international cooperation on a regional and global scale. It also indicates phenomena that have been indicating the deterioration of security conditions for several years. This publication addresses global threats and the concept of human security.
The electronic money have been appeared a little while ago, but people are just familiar to him. Therefore they are not afraid of possible changes in the payment form in, because future form of that already exists. E-money is the reality of now days. One cannot expect the revolution of money form, but it doesn’t mean the revolution in this area is pure illusion. It will take place, in addition in the deep fundament of financial system, namely in the monetary policy. Actual monetary policy is till bearing the ancient approach, relies on false definition of money, claimed it as the commodity. The practice of money issue already long time forget about it, but the theoretical models still contains restrictions from the time, when money have been based on gold or silver. Contemporarily money exists everywhere in form of fiat (create from nothing). Ignoring this event the theoreticians still try constrain monetary authorities before direct money transfers to cover public needs. They urging to pump it into commercial sphere only. That can’t bring positive resultants in the sake of the saturation of private money benefi ciaries. US and Japan experience last ten years evident, that public money is the sole realistic remedy to break the stagnation. The source of this money should be not the tax revenue, but direct transfer from the central bank.
In 2017, exactly 30 years have passed since the UN report ‘Our Common Future’ was printed. It is the publication that defi nes sustainable development, referring to the needs of present and future generations. How much has been achieved so far? Many problems have not been solved: the gap between rich and poor countries is widening, the threats related to globalization and terrorism are intensifying, climate anomalies are becoming more serious, a large dose of uncertainty accompanies financial markets and cultural differences between societies are also a challenge. At the same time, the very concept of sustainable development has become the central idea of modern political programs and strategies, which brings hope that a positive change will occur. The fate of all humanity is at stake.
The article analyzes the relationship between education systems and the development of civilization. The relationship between the global GDP product growth process and the increase in the number of students at universities has been demonstrated. The areas of technology were discussed, the development of which decisively infl uenced the directions of changes in our civilization. Directions of development of educational systems related to new e-education tools were described. The relationship between the educational status of Sub-Saharan African societies and the level of development of their economies and the mechanism of migration to Europe was particularly carefully analyzed. A list of global problems is presented that can be solved by specialists educated at universities who understand the needs of our planet.
East Asia, as a region of multidimensional diverse character never had in his history the integrationist traditions, as compared with Europe. The period of colonisation additionally deepened the disparities between the particular countries and even build upon some barriers and antagonism. The first approaches to regional cooperation and integration began only after World War II, along with the process of decolonization. The main premise of the initial stage of integration processes, especially in the southern part of the region, which is the cradle of Asian regionalism, were external threats, which remained the main catalyst of cooperation and integration processes in the following decades. The intensifi cation of economic cooperation in the countries of East Asia from the 1990s was a conscious response of governments to the fear of economic marginalization and moving away from the sources of creation of prosperity on the global market. The growing interdependence of the countries in the region revealed during the Asian fi nancial crisis of 1997–98 underpinned the necessity of joint strategy and governance at the regional level and marked a breakthrough in regional cooperation. Starting from the 1990s, and in particular in the fi rst decade of the XXI century the growing institutional interdependence was observed and exemplifi ed by multilateral and bilateral structures of cooperation within the region, and of interregional and intercontinental character. The integration experiences of East Asian countries indicate that while in the fi rst stages of cooperation and integration external threats could have been the driving force of the integration processes, institutional solutions are crucial in the later stages of deepening integration, in particular in the context of providing public goods – both regional and global. Emerging regional awareness in this area can be observed in East Asia today, primarily in the wake of the economic crisis of 2007/2008 and the need to adapt and modify the existing architecture of global order.
War is a traditional way of solving disagreements between social groups and nations. It is linked to the basic instincts of man, incorporated in his greed, desires of domination, and hate of other religion, race, or tribe. With time it is being called the pursuance of national interests, defence of a state, preemption of possible aggression and alike. Several leading minds of the given epoch, seeing incredible absurdity of the bloody centuries-long wars, tried to fi nd out the way out of the militarism, aggressions, hatred among the nations. Many believed the ability of the rational man to build up mutually benefi cial, peaceful relation between nations and states. Following this call the international community erected several multilateral and bilateral treaties, establishing the armistice and peace among the former belligerents. None of these legal arrangements lasted, all proved to be worth only of the paper they were written on. Several international organizations were established with the ostensible task of guarding for peace. Their infl uence on the world’s stability and restraint on war-making proved to be minimal, if any. The biggest hope is invested in the existence of the European Union, which managed to built a regional zone of prosperity, democracy, respect for law and human rights, hence overcoming ages of national antagonisms. A short period after the cold-war raised hopes for a “peace dividend” and better global stability. This hope disappeared together with the growth of terrorism, mass migrations, and the quickening of the over-all technological arms race. It seems the international community is unable to fi nd the way out of the war predicament; only new global challenges – destruction of natural environment, global warming, shortage of resources and alike – may bring the revolution in human attitudes towards war and peace.
The paper defines first the concept of the new left by stressing that the concept of left has two parts: its political representation and its social basis. The problem is that the old social basis of left – proletariat – is gradually destructed, and new social basis becomes the lower (in the sense of income) part of society. The relative impoverishment of this lower part is the result of neoliberalism, that is the economic practice resulting from ideology that supposedly best economic solution is an absolute freedom of the action of entrepreneurs. Based on game theory, the paper shows that such a postulate is not a theoretical conclusion, but an ideology serving the interests of the richest people, and its application during recent forty years resulted in substantive stratifi cation of incomes in most societies. The paper presents also a short note on the future of migration, but next concentrates on the program slogans and an outline of the program of new left – since its political representation should be aware of the change of its social basis and address in its program the needs of the new basis.
The text critically discusses M. Szlinder’s work on unconditional guaranteed income and minimum guaranteed income. Doubts about these concepts were presented. Both concepts are not linked to the social policy system, and the author treats them as a peculiar invention for practical application. In addition, both types of income are not linked either to tradition or to a country-specific working culture. The study sets out the calculations indicating the economic utopia of the concept of guaranteed income that has not been verifi ed either in Switzerland or in Finland. The Polish experience with the introduction Programmes of 500+ for children and disabled and the Programme of 13 retirement was discussed. The conclusions indicate the need to link the income guaranteed with the new paradigm of social investment policy. It also highlights the fact that guaranteed income has its own liberal roots and confronts the common good.