The aim of the article has been presentation of the fate of work in two different phases of his development: fordism and postfordism. The presentation is focused on relation between work and his object, scale of demanded creativity, type of man’s potentialities needed in a given type of work, relation between work and non-work, localization of work, stability of employment, dignity of work, scale of commodification of work, moral consequences of diff erent types of work, the way in which work is paid. An important part of the article is devoted to changing ways of control over work and types of oppression connected with the work in fordism and postfordism.
From the perspective of biology, humans achieved evolutionary success: conquered all terrestrial ecosystems of the planet and over dominated populations of other mammals. These successes, however, were simultaneously announcing the ecological catastrophe in the longer perspective. The past century brought about the degradation of soils, disappearance of lakes, freshwater deficiencies, the growing rate of biodiversity loss, finally the loss of the land surface, due to climate change and raised level of the oceans. Homo sapiens and its environment are threatened by the anthropogenic large scale degradation of biosphere: deforestation, progressing desertification, large demographic, economic and social inequities between different regions of so-called Third world, aspirations to achieve high standard of living in the most populated parts of the planet, and the attitudes of highly developed societies that ignore the necessity to reduce the anthropopressure in each of its dimensions.
Automation and related robotization is the peak achievement in the development of the technique of building machines for replace people in the performing of manufacturing work, and artificial intelligence is the peak achievement in the development of computer science as a tool to support people in the implementation of mental work. Progress and development in both areas should please us as another civilization success. Meanwhile, instead of pride and joy, many people feel fear, because there are many suspected threats surrounding these achievements of automation and artificial intelligence. The article aims to assess which of these fears are justified and which are not. According to the author, the supposition that when artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence (which will inevitably occur) will want to gain power over the world and destroy humanity – they are unjustified. However, the real threat is unemployment, which will occur along with the more frequent replacement of people by machines – both in physical and mental work.
When the authorities from the coal and steel age are trying to rule society of the digital era, this is not likely to promise calm times. Wars and crises, still inevitable in the physical world, will be additionally overlapped by conflicts over the Network, through the Network, in the Network and with the Network itself. Over the next decades, the present order will gradually decompose, and in the second half of this century one can expect revolutionary changes shaping the new order.
Mankind is increasingly responsible for the degradation of the environment. This process increases the risk of a collapse of the civilization’s development. The human impact on the environment is already so great that the present epoch is called anthropocene. This means that man not only destroys, but through appropriate action can reverse the degradation process. The author distinguishes two development paths to avoid future threats. The first one is endogenous. It is based on the conviction that the values of humankind must change. In this regard, it is necessary to limit the commonly used principle of maximizing profi t and exchange it for something more attractive. This new value is not yet widely defined. The second path is based on the occurrence of an exogenous factor that would shake the world’s societies and in a certain way “force” change. The study was based on critical analysis of available literature.
This article is an update of 2016 forecast of military and political security in 2025- and 2050-time horizons. The first part is focused on the identifi cation threats for military and political security, through subject literature review as well as forecasts & analyses of recognized individual researchers and institutions, including World Economic Forum, the National Intelligence Council, and US military forces. The following section is devoted to the presentation of research method used in this paper, referring to existing approaches in the research domain. Subsequently, results of the research are presented, including updated extracts of four mini scenarios adopted: (1) use of ABC weapons by terrorist organizations, (2) struggle for resources, (3) economic inequalities, (4) series of conflicts on the borders. Against this background the fi nal scenario was revised. In conclusion some recommendations and final remarks were made.
The article analyzes primary energy sources, their sufficiency and diversification on a local and global scale. Energy conditions the development possibilities of civilization. Reserves and resources of geofuels: crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium and methane hydrates were characterized. The forecast of primary energy demand on a global and local scale as well as the growing threat of energy crisis due to the use of fossil fuels and reduction of energy supplies were discussed. Threats and remedies related to the world’s energy security were described in the perspective of many generations. Preferences and stimulators in Polish energy policy for the crisis survival strategy were analyzed, including the problem of decarbonisation of the Polish power industry against the background of the European climate policy, the availability of gas sources as an effective fuel for the energy sector and the Polish nuclear energy program EJ. Selected problems of renewable energy sources RES, including the problem of the scale of interchangeability of geofuels by EJ and RES are indicated. The main areas of global and local anti-crisis activities were presented, as well as an outline of the Polish anti-crisis strategy, including the establishment of the National Energy Security Center.
The study presents the concept of chaos as a research category and discusses its peculiarities. Chaos has been illustrated by economic contrasts in international comparisons that lead to world governance disturbances. It discusses terror as a source of chaos and presents the precariat as a further threat to social order on a global scale. Some of the text refers to chaos in the natural environment. The author discussed cyberspace as a source of chaos and pointed to the importance of science as a proposal to escape from chaos.